In Vivo Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts

In Vivo Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts

Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts, Reference Series in
Biomedical Engineering

Walpoth B.H., de Valence S., Tille J-C., Mugnai D., Sologashvili T., Mrówczyński W.,
Cikirikcioglu M., Pektok E., Osorio S., Innocente F., Bochaton-Piallat M-L., Nottelet B., Kalangos A., Gurny R.


Vascular grafts are needed for coronary and peripheral vascular bypass surgeries as well as for access surgeries for hemodialysis and reconstruction of congenital heart defects. Despite good results in the large caliber, small caliber (<6 mm) show unsatisfactory clinical results. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVG) have been made using several approaches ranging from acellular synthetic or biologic polymer scaffolds to decellularized natural matrices, self-assembled cell-based bioreactor matured, or 3D cell-printed constructs. This chapter will focus mainly on in vivo tissue engineering which was used as first-in-man. This is based on an acellular, synthetic, degradable, polymer scaffold which is repopulated by the host cells after implantation to create a “neo-artery.” Advantages are shelf-readiness; simple, costeffective manufacturing; and avoidance of bioreactor cell maturation. Short-, mid-, and long-term experimental and clinical results show good cellular remodeling with extracellular matrix formation and endothelialization as well as patency and function. Thus, the approach of using an acellular, synthetic, biodegradable scaffold is an optimal clinical option for TEVG.